The hard outer covering of the wheat kernel.


A unit of measure which is equal to about 60 pounds of wheat.

Calcium Propionate

An effective mold inhibitor, keeping bread free of mold longer.

Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate

Acts as a dough conditioner. It increases the volume of bread, enhances the grain and texture, helps with crust tenderness, and helps to keep the bread fresh.


A measure of food energy.


Substance found in food which furnishes energy.

Chicory Fiber (or Inulin)

See Inulin below.

Cracked Wheat

Cleaned wheat grain that has been cut or broken into coarse, irregularly-shaped particles of prescribed average size for use in specialty bakery products.

Crushed Wheat

Cleaned wheat grain that has been crushed into a particle size somewhat smaller than cracked wheat.

Enriched Flour

Wheat flour with added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. These ingredients are optional additions and conform with the standards of identity for enriched flour.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)

Federal regulations that specify the legal requirements for the sanitary conditions under which food can be processed.

Inulin (from Chicory Fiber)

Inulin is a natural dietary fiber found in many plants, one of which is the chicory root. Inulin is an excellent source of fiber which helps your digestive tract. Studies have also shown that inulin aids with the absorption of calcium and other minerals.

What is the difference between a thrift store, a depot and an outlet?

Thrift stores and outlets are the same thing, where items can be purchased by the public. The depots do not sell to the general public.


An all-natural, sugar replacement, which is low in calories and does not cause a sudden increase in blood glucose levels.


A group of fungi that ranges in size from single-cell organisms to rather large, fleshy mushrooms.


Also known as nicotinic acid, it is a nutritionally important member of the water soluble B-complex vitamins found in meats, milk, yeast and leafy vegetables. Niacin helps to prevent pellagra, a disease caused by lack of niacin and protein in the diet.

Resistant Corn Starch

Resists digestion in the small intestine. Resistant starches are naturally present in many foods such as corn, legumes and cereals. Research has shown that resistant starches improve glucose regulation and digestive health.


A vitamin forming part of the water-soluble B-complex, originally designated as vitamin B-2.


A vitamin of the B complex, also known as vitamin B-1 and anserine. Thiamin is an essential nutrient for growth, proper metabolism of carbohydrates, normal functioning of the nervous system, the prevention of beriberi and other nerve disorders, and for the maintenance of a good appetite.

Usable Carbs

Usable carbs refer to the amount of carbohydrates which are actually absorbed by the body. To get the number of usable carbs in a product, subtract the amount of fiber from the total carbohydrates.


A plant having heads filled with seeds which are used for making flour and cereals.

Wheat Kernels

The whole kernel or seed growing in the heads of wheat.

Wheat Stems


Whole Wheat Bread

Bread made of whole wheat flour and which otherwise conforms to the definition and standards of identity governing standardized bakery products.

Whole Wheat Flour

Also called graham flour, the product that is obtained in various granulations by grinding clean wheat without removing any of its parts so that it’s composition is identical to that of the original grain.

Wholesale Bakery

A bakery, normally with extensive production facilities, that uses retail outlets variously located in food stores, grocery stores, supermarkets, etc., to sell its products to the consumer.